Spring MVC的配置和使用

笔记仓库:https://github.com/nnngu/LearningNotes


Spring MVC需要的jar包

文章中 Spring MVC 使用的版本是 3.2.18 , 需要的 jar 包如下:

spring-webmvc
jstl 1.1.2
aopalliance 1.0
commons-logging 1.1.1
spring-aop
spring-beans
spring-context
spring-core
spring-expression
spring-web

使用 Maven 构建的 Java 项目,需要在 pom.xml 中添加如下依赖:

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>jstl</groupId>
            <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.2</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>aopalliance</groupId>
            <artifactId>aopalliance</artifactId>
            <version>1.0</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
            <artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.1</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-aop</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-beans</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-expression</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
            <version>3.2.18.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>

前期准备

1、在com.nnngu.entity包下创建 User.java

代码如下:

package com.nnngu.entity;

import java.io.Serializable;

public class User implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    private String name;
    private Integer age;
    private String pwd;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Integer getAge() {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(Integer age) {
        this.age = age;
    }

    public String getPwd() {
        return pwd;
    }

    public void setPwd(String pwd) {
        this.pwd = pwd;
    }

}

2、在下图所示的位置创建两个 jsp 页面

create.jsp的代码如下:

<%--
  Created by IntelliJ IDEA.
  User: lijiawei
  Date: 13/02/2018
  Time: 14:08
  To change this template use File | Settings | File Templates.
--%>
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
         pageEncoding="UTF-8" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
    <title>创建用户</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="save" method="post">
    <fieldset>
        <legend>创建用户</legend>
        <p>
            <label>姓名:</label> <input type="text" id="name" name="name"
                                      tabindex="1">
        </p>
        <p>
            <label>年龄:</label> <input type="text" id="age" name="age"
                                      tabindex="2">
        </p>
        <p>
            <label>密码:</label> <input type="text" id="pwd" name="pwd"
                                      tabindex="3">
        </p>
        <p id="buttons">
            <input id="reset" type="reset" tabindex="4" value="重置"> <input
                id="submit" type="submit" tabindex="5" value="创建">
        </p>
    </fieldset>
</form>
</body>
</html>

detail.jsp 的代码如下:

<%--
  Created by IntelliJ IDEA.
  User: lijiawei
  Date: 13/02/2018
  Time: 14:08
  To change this template use File | Settings | File Templates.
--%>
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
         pageEncoding="UTF-8" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
    <title>用户详情</title>
</head>
<body>
<div id="gloobal">
    <h4>创建成功</h4>
    <p>
    <h5>详情:</h5>
    姓名:${user.name}<br/>
    年龄:${user.age}<br/>
    密码:${user.pwd}<br/>
    </p>
</div>
</body>
</html>

配置Spring MVC

1、在 web.xml 文件中进行如下配置:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_1.xsd"
         version="3.1">

    <filter>
        <description>字符集过滤器</description>
        <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name>
        <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter</filter-class>
        <init-param>
            <description>字符集编码</description>
            <param-name>encoding</param-name>
            <param-value>UTF-8</param-value>
        </init-param>
    </filter>
    <filter-mapping>
        <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name>
        <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

    <servlet>
        <servlet-name>appServlet</servlet-name>
        <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
        <init-param>
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
            <param-value>classpath:spring/springmvc-context.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
    </servlet>
    <servlet-mapping>
        <servlet-name>appServlet</servlet-name>
        <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
    </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

2、在下图所示的位置创建 springmvc-context.xml

springmvc-context.xml的代码如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans:beans xmlns:beans="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
             xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc" xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-3.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd ">

    <!-- 对包中的所有类进行扫描,以完成Bean创建和自动依赖注入的功能 -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="com.nnngu"/>

    <!-- 启动基于Spring MVC的注解功能,将控制器与方法映射加入到容器中 -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven/>

    <!-- 这个类用于Spring MVC视图解析 -->
    <beans:bean id="viewResolver"
                class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver">
        <beans:property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/pages/"/>
        <beans:property name="suffix" value=".jsp"/>
    </beans:bean>

</beans:beans>

3、编写 Controller

在上图所示的位置创建 UserController.java ,代码如下:

package com.nnngu;

import com.nnngu.entity.User;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ModelAttribute;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

/**
 * 用户管理
 */
@Controller
public class UserController {

    @RequestMapping("")
    public String Create(Model model) {
        return "create";
    }

    @RequestMapping("/save")
    public String Save(@ModelAttribute("form") User user, Model model) { // user:视图层传给控制层的表单对象;  model:控制层返回给视图层的对象
        model.addAttribute("user", user);
        return "detail";
    }
}

测试

启动项目,在浏览器输入 localhost:8080

测试成功。